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Monday, June 18, 2012

Types of Communication Models

Several models have been identified by the communication theorists to depict human perception. All models include at least three elements: a receiver, a message and a source.
Here we will discuss several types of communication model such as:

  1. Aristotelian Persuasion Model
  2. Hovland Model of Communication
  3. The Newcomb interpersonal model
  4. Shanon and weaver’s information theory model
  5. Collin’s and Guetzkuw’s Groups Communication model
  6. Thayer’s Organizational Model
  7. Wenburg  and Wilmot’s Transactional Model
(1)    Aristotelian Persuasion Model:  It is the oldest and simplest model of communication. Here the form of communication observed by Aristotle is persuasive in nature. In this model the messages flow in a one way process. But this model does not include all the elements of communication. It includes only three elements of communication such as speaker, message and listener/receiver. This model may be shown in the following way.

(2)    Hovland Model of communication: This model of communication is almost similar to Aristotelian persuasion model. The only difference between these two models is that in Hovland model the listener will be in a predetermined position. That is, the message is sent to a pre­determined listener. The listener also gives his reaction to the speaker. This model may be shown in the following way:
(3)    The New comb Interpersonal Model: The Newcomb interpersonal model is one of the simplest models of communication. Suppose A wants to communicate a message to B. But B is not known to him. Another person X is known to both A and B. Hence, A will communicate message to B through the help of X. B will also communicate message to A with the help of the same person X. It will be clearer to us if we go through the following figure.

(4)    Shanon and Weaver's Information Theory Model: This model involves an information source which selects a desired message, a transmitter which changes the message and it is sent through some communication channel to a receiver to whom the message was originally intended. This model can be represented by the following figure:

A noise source means any interference with the transmission and reception of the message. The noise may be of two types
a.    Mechanical Noise : It comes from any mechanical source.
b.    Semantic Noise : Semantic noise is the difference between the meaning intended by the sender and the receiver of the message.
(5)    Collin's and Guetzkuw's Group Communication Model : It deals with communication in the decision making group which occurs as a basic part of organizational communication. This model may be shown in the following way:
As it is seen in the above figure, the top three boxes represent the source, behavior, and reward associated with the task aspects of group operation, while the lower three boxes represent the source, behavior and reward associated with interpersonal aspects of group operation.
Obstacle in the task environment and interpersonal environment affects the group's interpersonal communication behavior.
(6)    Thayer's Organizational Model : Organizational model attempts to show or to place the individual communication efforts within the large organizational communication setting which influences him or her It is based on levels of communication. The levels are (i) Organizational, (ii) Interpersonal, (iii) Intrapersonal and (IV) Technological which are derived from four basic sources or determinants of human communication behavior. These basic sources are psychological, sociological and technological. This model of communication will be clearer to us from the following diagram:

(7)    Wenburg and Wilmot's Transactional Model : T h transactional model represents the communication as a process c simultaneous message exchange. According to Wenburg and Wilmot "All persons are engaged in sending (encoding) and receiving (decoding) messages simultaneously. Each person is constantly sharing in the encoding and decoding process and each person is affecting the others." The transactional model emphasizes the idea that communication is mutual as well as reciprocal. The following figure shows a transactional model of communication.